United Nations Developing Countries List 2023 – Alternative version of world map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2021 data, published in 2022)
World map of a country or region by Human Development Index score, in multiples of 0.050 (based on 2021 data, published in 2022)
United Nations Developing Countries List 2023
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) compiles the Human Development Index (HDI) of 191 countries in its annual Human Development Report. The index looks at health, education and income in a country to provide a measure of human development that can be compared across countries and over time.
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The HDI is the most widely used indicator of human development and has changed the way people think about the concept.
However, some aspects of the index have been criticized. Some scholars have criticized the weighting of these factors, particularly that an extra year of life expectancy is valued differently from country to country;
And considering limiting factors, eliminating factors such as high levels of distribution and inequality.
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In response to the former, UNDP introduced the Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) in its 2010 report, and the Gender Development Index (GDI) in response to the latter in its 1995 report.
To reflect development differences across countries, the sub-national HDI (SHDI), which features data from more than 1,600 regions, was introduced in 2018 by the Global Data Lab at Radboud University in the Netherlands.
In 2020, UNDP introduced another index, the Planetary Pressure-Adjusted Human Development Index (PHDI), which lowers the scores of countries with high environmental footprints.
United Nations Development Programme (undp)
The HDI was first published in 1990 with the aim of being a more comprehensive measure of human development than purely economic measures such as gross domestic product. The index consists of three dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge and a healthy quality of life. In each dimension, different indicators are used to calculate the country’s performance. Indicators used in the 2022 report are life expectancy at birth; Expected academic year of the child; Average years of schooling for adults; and gross national income per capita. With these indicators, we construct a health index, an education index, and an income index, each of which has a value between 0 and 1. The geometric mean of the three indicators – that is, the cube root of the product of the index – is the human development index. Values above 0.800 are considered very high, values between 0.700 and 0.799 are considered high, values between 0.550 and 0.699 are considered moderate, and values below 0.550 are considered low.
The data used to calculate the HDI are mostly provided by United Nations agencies and international organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. come from institutions. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). At least, if an indicator is missing, a cross-country regression model is used. Due to updated data and improved methodology, HDI scores are not consistent across Human Development Reports; Instead, each report recalculates previous years’ HDI.
The Human Development Report covers all 193 United Nations member states, as well as the State of Palestine and Hong Kong SAR. However, the Human Development Index is not calculated for four United Nations member states: DPR Korea (North Korea), Monaco, Nauru and Somalia. Several components of the index can be calculated for these countries. The Cook Islands, the Holy See (Vatican City) and Niue are the only States parties to the United Nations not included in the report.
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The Global Data Lab also provides data for Somalia’s HDI of 0.361 (2019), the lowest in the world, although data for Syria is not available.
In 2021 countries ranked 1-66 will be ranked as “very high” HDI, 67-115. Rating “High” HDI, 116-159. Classification “intermediate” HDI, 160-191. Low” HDI.
The Human Development Report also reports on the HDI for different country groups. This includes regional groupings based on UNDP’s regional classification,
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The HDI group includes countries that currently belong to the HDI giv group, members of the OECD and many other United Nations groups.
Aggregate HDI values are calculated in the same way as for individual countries, using an average of the input data for all countries in the pool. Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are developing countries classified by the United Nations as having low indicators of social and economic development. The LDC concept dates back to the late 1960s, and the first group of LDCs was registered by the United Nations in Resolution 2768 (XXVI) on 18 November 1971.
As of December 2020, 46 countries are still classified as LDCs, while six countries graduated between 1994 and 2020.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) recognized the UN list and said that “measures taken within the framework of the WTO can help least developed countries to increase their exports to other WTO members.” Increase and attract investment. Encouraged more rapid growth and exports, diversification and more effective participation in the multilateral trading system.
LDC criteria are reviewed every three years by the Committee on Development Policy (CDP) of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Countries can be excluded from the LDC classification if indicators exceed this standard in two consecutive trilateral assessments.
The Office of the United Nations High Representative for Least Developing Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) coordinates UN assistance and provides advocacy services to LDCs. Ranking (as of December 2020
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At the Fourth United Nations Conference on LDCs held in May 2011, delegates supported the target of targeting at least half of existing LDCs within three years.
In 2018, three or more countries will graduate in 2024, with Bangladesh and Djibouti meeting all criteria in 2018.
There is one country that previously met the criteria and two countries that previously met the criteria for LDC status but declined to be included in the index, questioning the validity or accuracy of the CDP data: Ghana (1994 no longer eligible), Papua New Guinea (no longer meeting the criteria since 2009), and Zimbabwe.
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Least developed countries can be distinguished from developing countries, “least developed countries”, “least developed countries” or other similar terms.
The term “economically least developed countries” (LEDC) is still used. However, to avoid confusion with “developing countries” and “least economically developed countries” (both abbreviated LDCs) and landlocked developing countries (abbreviated LLDCs), “developing countries” are generally is used in preference to “least developed countries”.
In a 2018 review by the United Nations, the United Nations defined an LDC as a country that meets three criteria, one of which is a three-year gross national income (GNI) per capita of US$1,025. less than a dollar. Countries with a population of more than 75 million are not included.
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Five United Nations conferences are held annually on least developed countries. The first two were in Paris in 1981 and 1991; Third in Brussels in 2001.
On May 9-13, 2011, the Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV) was held in Istanbul, Turkey, attended by UN President Ban Ki-moon and nearly 50 prime ministers and heads of state. . . The conference endorsed the goal of removing half of the current least developed countries from the LDC category by 2022. Similar to the Seoul Development Consensus drafted in 2010, there is a strong emphasis on improving productive capacities and physical infrastructure, and some NGOs are dissatisfied. With an emphasis on the private sector.
Global trade rules and issues surrounding LDCs have received a lot of media and policy attention since the recently concluded Doha Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO), thanks to the so-called Development Era. At the WTO ministerial meeting in Hong Kong, it was agreed that if the round is completed, LDCs can have 100% duty-free and quota-free access to the US market. However, an NGO analysis of the deal found that the text of the proposed LDC agreement contained significant loopholes that would result in the offer reaching less than 100 percent full access and duty-free LDCs to rich country markets. Access may also be terminated.
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Dr. Chiedu Osakwe, Director of the Technical Cooperation Department of the WTO Secretariat since 2001 and Adviser to the Director-General on Developing Country Affairs, was appointed Special Coordinator for Least Developed Countries at the WTO in 1999.
It works closely with five other agencies that, along with the WTO, create an integrated framework for work for least developed countries. They discussed issues of market access, conditions for special and differential treatment of developing countries, participation of developing countries in the multilateral trading system, and development issues, particularly the competition policy interests of developing countries. Regarding the
At the 28th G8 meeting in Kannadaskis, Alberta, Canadian Prime Minister Jane Curie proposed and implemented a market access initiative so that 48 least developed countries could benefit from “trade, not aid.”
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In addition, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals call for special and effective differential treatment for the 14 least developed countries.