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Gautama Buddha, Adam Smith, John Rawls, John Maynard Keynes, B. R. Ambedkar, Kenneth Arrow, Piero Sraffa, Maurice Dobb, Mary Wollstonecraft,
2023 Nobel Prize Winners List Hindi
Amartya Kumar S (Bgali: [ˈɔmortːo ˈʃ]; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher who since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom and the United States. Contributions have been made to welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice, economic theories of hunger, decision theory, development economics, public health, and welfare measures in the countries.
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He is currently the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor and Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University.
In 1998, and India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, the following year for his contribution to welfare economics. The German Publishers and Booksellers Association awarded him the 2020 German Bookseller Peace Prize for his innovative scholarship addressing issues of global justice and the fight against social inequality in education and healthcare.
Family from Santiniketan, Bengal, British India. The famous scholar and writer Rabindranath Tagore named Amartya S after him (Bgali: अमरतय, romanized: ômorto,
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S’s family was from Wari and Manikganj, Dhaka, both in former Bangladesh. His father Ashutosh S was a professor of chemistry at Dhaka University, Development Commissioner of Delhi and chairman of West Bgal Public Service Commission. He moved with his family to West Bengal in 1945. S’s mother, Amita S, was the daughter of Kshiti Mohan S, the eminent Sanskrit scholar and scholar of ancient and medieval India, who was a close collaborator of Tagore. KMS was the second vice-chancellor of Visva Bharati University from 1953 to 1954.
S began his studies at St Gregory’s School in Dhaka in 1940. In the autumn of 1941 he was admitted to Patha Bhavana, Shantiniketan, where he completed his studies. The school had many progressive features, such as an aversion to exams or competitive testing. Additionally, the school emphasized cultural diversity and adopted cultural influences from the rest of the world.
In 1951 he entered the Presidency College of Calcutta, where he earned a bachelor’s degree. in Economics with the first of class I, with a mention in Mathematics, as a graduate he studied at the University of Calcutta. During his presidency, S was diagnosed with oral cancer and was given a 15% chance of living five years.
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Thanks to radiotherapy he survived and in 1953 he moved to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he obtained a second degree. in Economics in 1955 with first class and also topped the list. At that time he was elected president of the Cambridge Majlis.
While S was officially a graduate student at Cambridge (although he completed his research in 1955-56), he was offered the position of first professor and first head of the economics department at the newly created Jadavpur University in Calcutta. He remains the youngest president to lead the Department of the Economy. He held this position, establishing the new Department of Finance, from 1956 to 1958.
Meanwhile, S has been chosen for an award-winning scholarship at Trinity College, giving him four years of freedom to do whatever he wants; He made the radical decision to study philosophy. He explained: “It was important for me to expand my studies in philosophy, not least because some of my main areas of interest in economics are closely related to philosophical disciplines (for example, social choice theory makes extensive use of mathematical logic ). and it is also based on moral philosophy, as is the study of inequality and deprivation), but also because I found the philosophical studies very rewarding in their own right.”
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However, his interest in philosophy dates back to his university days at the Presidency, where he read philosophy books and debated philosophical topics. One of the books that interested him the most was Social Choice and Individual Values by Kenneth Arrow.
At Cambridge there were important debates between proponents of Keynesian economics and neoclassical economists who were skeptical of Keynes. Due to the unsoundness of social choice theory at both Trinity and Cambridge, S chose a different topic for his PhD thesis, which was on “The Choice of Techniques” in 1959. The work had been completed earlier, except on the advice of his deputy supervisor in India, Professor A.K. Dasgupta, delivered to S while teaching and revising his work at Jadavpur under the supervision of the “brilliant but powerfully intolerant” post-Keynesian Joan Robinson.
Qutin Skinner notes that S was a member of the secret society of the Cambridge Apostles during his stay in Cambridge.
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S’s work on “Choice of Techniques” complemented that of Maurice Dobb. In a developing country, the Dobb-S strategy was based on maximizing investable surpluses, keeping real wages constant, and using the increase in labor productivity as a result of technological change to increase the rate of accumulation. In other words, workers were expected not to demand any improvement in their standard of living despite becoming more productive. Ss’s articles from the late 1960s and early 1970s helped develop social choice theory, which first became prominent in the work of American economist Kenneth Arrow. Arrow most famously demonstrated that when voters have three or more distinct options (alternatives), any system of ranked-choice voting will, at least in some situations, inevitably conflict with what many assume to be basic democratic norms. S’s contribution to the literature was to show under what conditions Arrow’s impossibility theorem holds.
He applied, expanded and enriched social choice theory, informed by his interests in the history of economic thought and philosophy.
In 1981, S published Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Title and Deprivation (1981), a book in which he argued that hunger arises not only from the lack of food, but from the inequalities built into the mechanisms of food distribution. . It has also been argued that the Bengal famine was caused by an urban economic boom that drove up food prices, thus causing millions of agricultural workers to starve to death when their wages did not hold up.
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S’s interest in the famine arose from his personal experience. At the age of nine, he witnessed the Bengal famine of 1943, in which three million people died. This staggering loss of life was unnecessary, S later concluded. It presents evidence that there was an adequate supply of food in Bengal at the time, but certain groups of people, including landless laborers and urban service providers such as barbers, did not have the means to purchase food because the price rose rapidly due to to factors including military purchases, panic buying, hoarding and price increases, all related to the war in the region. In Poverty and Famine, S revealed that in many cases of famine the food supply was not significantly reduced. In Bgal, for example, food production, although lower than the previous year, was higher than in previous years without famine. S points to a number of social and economic factors, such as falling wages, unemployment, rising food prices, and poor food distribution, that caused the famine. His capabilities approach focuses on positive freedom, a person’s actual ability to be or do something, rather than the negative freedom approaches that are common in economics and focus simply on noninterference. In the Bgal famine, the negative freedom of agricultural workers to purchase food was not affected. However, they still starved because they were not really free to do anything, had no maintenance function, and had no ability to escape disease.
In addition to his important work on the causes of hunger, S’s work in development economics had a significant influence on the design of the Human Development Report.
This annual publication, which ranks countries on a variety of economic and social indicators, owes much to the contributions of S, among other social choice theorists, to the field of economic measurement of poverty and inequality.
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S’s innovative contribution to development economics and social indicators is the concept of “capability” developed in his article Equality of What.
He argues that governments should be measured by the concrete capabilities of their citizens. This is because vertical development will always defeat human rights as long as the definition of the terms is in question (is a “right” something that must be granted or something that simply cannot be taken away?). For example, in the United States citizens have the right to vote. For S, this concept is quite empty. For citizens to have the ability to vote, they must first have “offices.” These “functions” can range from the broad, such as the availability of education, to the very specific, such as transportation to polling stations. Only when these barriers are eliminated can we say that the citizen acts by personal choice. It is up to each individual company to create the list of minimum capabilities guaranteed by that company. to